The Carbfix technology can be applied at any concentrated stream of CO2 which is located near favorable rock formations (see Where it works). Carbfix offers consultancy packages and carries out feasibility studies that are tailored to a specific facility. This is based on flue gas composition and geological conditions and other factors.
Carbfix has carried out generic cost estimates and process simulations for selected industries, detailing water-, energy requirements and associated operational costs. The approach contrast three scenarios for each industrial facility
- Amine-based capture in a conventional scrubbing tower
- Water capture in a pressurized scrubbing tower
- Amine-based capture in combination Carbfix injection with downhole mixing (no water scrubbing tower on the surface)
As a general rule of thumb, carbon capture in water becomes more economical when the volume concentration of CO2 exceeds 10-20%. In addition, Carbfix water capture offers the following advantages
- No chemicals used, other than water (or seawater)
- Co-capture of other soluble gases such as sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and Fluor (F). These polluting gases participate in reactions underground, forming minerals to various extent.
- Less stringent requirements for pipe and casing material that for purified CO2
A simplified process diagram for Carbfix implementation in industry is show below. This setup has been in operation in the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant in Iceland since 2014.
The capture plant at Hellisheidi is a 13 meters tall scrubbing tower that dissolves 15,000 tons of CO2 and 8,000 tons of H2S in water every year. This is then injected into the basaltic bedrock where it forms solid minerals.
Collaboration with heavy industry in Iceland
In June 2019, the government of Iceland, Reykjavik Energy - the mother company of Carbfix, and the heavy industry in Iceland signed a trilateral Declaration of Intent to explore whether the Carbfix process is technologically and economically viable to reduce CO2 emissions from their industrial facilities, which notably account for 40% of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions (excluding LULUCF).