The Carbfix technology can be applied within the industrial sector at any concentrated stream of CO2 which is located near favorable rock formations (see Where it works) or CO2 transport network(s). Carbfix offers consultancy services and carries out feasibility studies which are tailored to each project and facility. Factors such as flue gas composition, local geology and water availability determine whether on-site storage or transport to offsite storage facilities are most feasible for customers wanting to permanently turning their CO2 emissions to stone.
Carbfix has carried out generic cost estimates and process simulations for selected industries, detailing water-, energy requirements and associated operational costs. Carbfix can be deployed as either a single or two-step solution:
Single step solution where CO2 in flue gas is directly dissolved in water in a pressurized capture plant and injected for mineral storage
Two-step solution where CO2 is first captured using any other capture technology before dissolving in water and injecting for mineral storage
As a general rule of thumb, direct carbon capture in water becomes more economical when the volume concentration of CO2 exceeds 10-20%. In addition, Carbfix water capture offers the following advantages:
- No chemicals used, other than water (or seawater)
- Co-capture of other soluble gases such as sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and Fluor (F). These polluting gases participate in reactions underground, forming minerals to various extent
- Less stringent requirements for pipe and casing material than for purified CO2
A simplified process diagram for Carbfix implementation in industry is show below. This setup has been in operation in the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant in Iceland since 2014.
The capture plant at Hellisheidi is a 13 meters tall scrubbing tower that dissolves 15,000 tons of CO2 and 8,000 tons of H2S in water every year. This is then injected into the basaltic bedrock where it forms solid minerals.
Collaboration with heavy industry in Iceland
In June 2019, the government of Iceland, Reykjavik Energy - the mother company of Carbfix, and the heavy industry in Iceland signed a trilateral Declaration of Intent to explore whether the Carbfix process is technologically and economically viable to reduce CO2 emissions from their industrial facilities, which notably account for 40% of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions (excluding LULUCF).