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Scientific Papers

Below you can find and access all available Scientific Papers the Carbfix team has published over the years, as well as PhD, MSc and BSc theses. If you are not able to access any of the following links please Contact Us.

For a comprehensive introduction to carbon mineral storage, we recommend our recent review in Nature Reviews: Snæbjörnsdóttir et al. 2020


Marieni, C., Voigt, M.J., Oelkers, E.H., 2021. Experimental study of epidote dissolution rates from pH 2 to 11 and temperatures from 25 to 200 °C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 294, 70-88.


Clark, D. E., Oelkers, E. H., Gunnarsson, I., Sigfússon, B., Snæbjörnsdóttir, S. Ó., Aradóttir, E. A., Gíslason, S. R. (2020) CarbFix2: CO2 and H2S mineralization during 3.5 years of continuous injection into basaltic rocks at more than 250 °C Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol 279, 45-66.

Snæbjörnsdóttir, S.Ó., Sigfússon, B., Marieni, C., Goldberg, D., Gislason, S.R. and Oelkers, E.H. (2020). Carbon dioxide storage through mineral carbonation, Nature Reviews Earth & Environment.


Clark, D.E., Galeczka, I.M., Dideriksen, K., Voigt, M.J., Wolff-Boenisch, D. and Gislason, S.R. (2019). Experimental observations of CO2-water-basaltic glass interaction in a large column reactor experiment at 50°C, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 89, pp. 9-19.

Pogge von Strandmann, P.A.E., Burton, K.W., Snæbjörnsdóttir, S.O., Sigfússon, B., Aradóttir, E.S. et al (2019). Rapid CO2 mineralisation into calcite at the CarbFix storage site quantified using calcium isotopes, Nature Communications 10, article number 1983

Ratouis, T., Snæbjörnsdóttir, S.Ó., Gunnarsson, G., Gunnarsson, I., Kristjánsson, B.R., Aradóttir, E.S. (2019). Modelling the Complex Structural Features Controlling Fluid Flow at the CarbFix2 Reinjection Site, Hellisheiði Geothermal Power Plant, SW-Iceland. Proceedings, 44th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford, California, February 11-13, 2019. SGP-TR-214, p18.


Oelkers, E.H., Butcher, R., Pogge von Strandmann P.A.E., et al (2018). Using stable Mg isotope signatures to assess the fate of magnesium during the in situ mineralisation of CO2 and H2S at the CarbFix site in SW-Iceland. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 245, pp. 542-555

Gunnarson, I., Aradottir, E. S., Oelkers, E., et al (2018). The rapid and cost-effective capture and subsurface mineral storage of carbon and sulfur at the CarbFix2 site. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 79, pp. 117-126

Stockmann, G.J., Ranta, E., Trampe, E., Sturkell, E., Seaman, P. (2018) Carbon mineral storage in seawater: Ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) columns in Greenland. Energy Procedia, Volume 146, pp. 59-67

Marieni, C., Oelkers, E. (2018) Carbon sequestration potential of altered mafic reservoirs. Energy Procedia, Volume 146, pp. 68-73

Voigt, M., Marieni, C., Clark, D.E., Gíslason, S.R., Oelkers, E.H (2018) Evaluation and refinement of thermodynamic databases for mineral carbonation. Energy Procedia, Volume 146, pp. 81-91

Gislason, S.R., Sigurdardottir, H., Aradottir, E.S., Oelkers, E.H. (2018)  A brief history of CarbFix: Challenges and victories of the project‘s pilot phase. Energy Procedia, Volume 146, pp. 103-114.

Aradóttir, E.S.P., Hjálmarsson, E. (2018) CarbFix - public engagement and transparency. Energy Procedia, Volume 146, pp. 115-120

Clark, D.E., Gunnarsson, I., Aradóttir, E.S., Arnarsson, M.Þ. et.al (2018) The chemistry and potential reactivity of the CO2-H2S charged injected waters at the basaltic CarbFix2 site, Iceland. Energy Procedia, Volume 146, pp.121-128.

Gutknecht, V., Snæbjörnsdóttir, S.Ó., Sigfússon, G., Aradóttir, E.S., Charles, L. (2018) Creating a carbon dioxide removal solution by combining rapid mineralization of CO2 with direct air capture. Energy Procedia, Volume 146, pp. 129-134

Sigfússon, B., Arnarson, M.Þ., Snæbjörnsdóttir, S.Ó., et. al. (2018) Reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide at Hellisheidi power plant in 2014-2017 and the role of CarbFix in achieving the 2040 Iceland climate goals. Energy Procedia, Volume 146, pp. 135-145

Snæbjörnsdóttir, S.Ó., Tómasdóttir, S., Sigfússon, B., et.al. (2018) The geology and hydrology of the CarbFix2 site, SW-Iceland. Energy Procedia, Volume 146, pp. 146-157

Marieni, C., Přikryl, J., Aradóttir, E. S., Gunnarsson, I., Stefánsson, A. (2018) Towards 'green' geothermal energy: Co-mineralization of carbon and sulfur in geothermal reservoirs. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 77, pp 96-105.

Snæbjörnsdóttir, S.Ó., Gislason, S.R., Galeczka, I.M., Oelkers, E.H. (2018) Reaction path modelling of in-situ mineralisation of CO2 at the CarbFix site at Hellisheidi, SW-Iceland.Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Volume 220, pp. 348-366.

Wolff-Boenisch, D., Galeczka, I. (2018). Flow-through reactor experiments on basalt-(sea)water-CO2 reactions at 90 °C and neutral pH. What happens to the basalt pore space under post-injection conditions? International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 68, pp 176-190.

Callow, B., Falcon-Suarez, I., Ahmed, S., Matter (2018). Assessing the carbon sequestration potential of basalt using X-ray micro-CT and rock mechanics, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 70, pp. 146-156


Trias, R., Ménez, B., le Campion, P., et al. (2017) High reactivity of deep biota under anthropogenic CO2 injection into basalt. Nature Communications, 8, 1063.

Snæbjörnsdóttir, SO, Oelkers, EH, Mesfin, K. et al. (2017) The chemistry and saturation states of subsurface fluids during the in situ mineralisation of CO2 and H2S at the CarbFix site in SW-Iceland. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 58, pp 87-102.


Matter, JM, Stute, M, Snæbjörnsdóttir, SO. et al. (2016) Rapid carbon mineralization for permanent disposal of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Science, Volume 352, Issue 6291, pp 1312-1314.

Snæbjörnsdóttir, SO, Gislason SR. (2017) CO2 Storage Potential of Basaltic Rocks Offshore Iceland. Energy Procedia, Volume 86, pp 371-380.


Sigfusson, B., Gislason, S.R. Matter, J.M. et al. (2015). Solving the carbon-dioxide buoyancy challenge: The design and field testing of a dissolved CO2 injection system. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 37 213–219.

Aradóttir, E.S.P., Gunnarsson, I., Sigfusson, B. et al. (2015). Towards Cleaner Geothermal Energy: Subsurface Sequestration of Sour Gas Emissions from Geothermal Power Plants. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015.

Aradóttir ESP et al. (2015) Towards Cleaner Geothermal Energy Utilization: Capturing and Sequestering CO2 and H2S Emissions from Geothermal Power Plants, Transport in Porous Media, Volume 108, Issue 1, pp 61-84

Juliusson B.M., Gunnarsson, I. Matthiasdottir, K.V. et al. (2015) Tackling the Challenge of H2S Emissions. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, Australia, 19-25 April 2015.


Gislason SR and Oelkers EH. (2014).  Carbon Storage in Basalt. Science 344, 373-374.

Snæbjörnsdóttir SÓ, Wiese F, Fridriksson Th, Ármannsson H., Einarsson GM, Gislason SR. (2014). CO2 storage potential of basaltic rocks in Iceland and the oceanic ridges.  Energy Procedia Vol 63, Pages 4585-4600.

Matter, J.M., Stute, M., Hall, J. et al. (2014). Monitoring permanent CO2 storage by in situ mineral carbonation using a reactive tracer technique. Energy Procedia 63, 4180-4185 .

Gislason S.R et al. (2014). Rapid solubility and mineral storage of CO2 in basalt Energy Procedia Vol 63, Pages 4561–4574.

Galeczka I. M., D. Wolff-Boenisch, E. H. Oelkers, S. R. Gislason (2014). An experimental study of basaltic glass–H2O-CO2 interaction at 22 and 50° C: Implications for subsurface storage of CO2. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 126, 123-145.

Galeczka I. M., , E.H. Oelkers, S.R. Gislason (2014).  The chemistry and element fluxes of the July 2011 Múlakvísl and Kaldakvísl glacial floods, Iceland. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 273, 41–57.

Gudbrandsson S., Wolff-Boenisch D., Gislason S. R. and Oelkers E. H. (2014). Experimental determination of plagioclase dissolution rates as a function of its composition and pH at 22°C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 139 (2014) 154–172

Olsson J, Stipp SLS, Makovicky E, and Gislason SR. (2014) .  Metal scavenging by calcium carbonate at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano: A carbon capture and storage analogue.  Chemical Geology 384 135–148.

Schultz L.N., Dideriksen K., Lakshtanov L., Hakim S.S., Müter D., Haußer F., Bechgaard K. and Stipp S.L.S. (2014) From nanometer aggregates to micrometer crystals: Insight into the coarsening mechanism of calcite. Cryst. Growth Dec. 14, 552–558.

Stockmann GJ, Wolff-Boenisch D, Bovet N et al. (2014). The role of silicate surfaces on calcite precipitation kinetics. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 135 231-250.

Tobler D.J., Rodriguez Blanco J.D., Dideriksen K., Sand K.K., Bovet N., Benning L.G. and Stipp S.L.S. (2014) The effect of aspartic acid and glycine on amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) structure, stability and crystallization. Geochemistry of the Earth’s Surface meeting, GES-10. Procedia Earth Planet. Sci. 10, 143 – 148.


Alfredsson H. A., Oelkers E. H., Hardarson B. S., Franzson H., Gunnlaugsson E. and Gislason S. R. (2013) The geology and water chemistry of the Hellisheidi, SW-Iceland carbon storage site. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 12, 399–418.

Aradóttir E.S.P., Sigfússon B, Sonnenthal EL, Björnsson G and Jónsson H. (2013). Dynamics of basaltic glass dissolution – Capturing microscopic effects in continuum scale models. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 121 311–327.

Alfredsson, H.A.,  Oelkers, E.H. and Gislason, S.R., (2013). The predicted fate of CO2 injected into basaltic rock. New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2012 Proceedings 19 - 21 November 2012 Auckland, New Zealand, 5 pp.

Declercq J, Diedrich T, Perrot M, Gislason SR, Oelkers EH (2013). Experimental determination of rhyolitic glass dissolution rates at 40–200 C and 2 < pH < 10.1. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 100.

Declercq J, Bosc O, Oelkers EH (2013). Do organic ligands affect forsterite dissolution rates? Applied Geochemistry 39 69-77.

Galeczka I., Wolff-Boenisch D. and Gislason S. R. (2013) Experimental studies of basalt–H2O–CO2 interaction with a high pressure column flow reactor: the mobility of metals. Energy Procedia 37, 5823–5833.

Galeczka IM, D Wolff-Boenisch, T Jonsson, B Sigfusson, A Stefansson, SR Gislason (2013).  A novel high pressure column flow reactor for experimental studies of CO2 mineral storage.Applied Geochemistry 30, 91-104.

Gunnarsson I, Aradóttir ES, Sigfússon B, Gunnlaugsson E and Júlíusson BM, (2013), Geothermal Gas Emission From Hellisheidi and Nesjavellir Power Plants, Iceland, GRC Transactions, Vol. 37, 785-789.

Stockmann, G.J., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gislason, S.R., Oelkers, E.H., (2013). Do carbonate precipitates affect dissolution kinetics? 2: Diopside. Chemical Geology 337–338, 55-66. 


Aradóttir E. S. P., Sonnenthal E. L., Björnsson G. and Jónsson H. (2012) Multidimensional reactive transport modeling of CO2 mineral sequestration in basalts at the Hellisheidi geothermal field, Iceland Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control9, 24-40.

Aradóttir E. S. P., Sonnenthal E. L. and Jónsson H. I. (2012) Development and evaluation of a thermodynamic dataset for phases of interest in CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks. Chem. Geol. 304–305, 26–38.

Aradóttir E.S.P. et al. (2012) Towards cleaner geothermal energy  utilization: capturing and sequestering CO2 and H2S emissions from geothermal power plants. PROCEEDINGS, TOUGH Symposium 2012, Lawrence Berekeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California, September 17-19.

Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., (2012). CO2-water-basalt interaction. Low temperature experiments and implications for CO2 sequestration into basalts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 81, 129-152.

Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., (2012). Mineralogical aspects of CO2 sequestration during hydrothermal basalt alteration - An experimental study at 75 to 250 °C and elevated pCO2. Chem. Geol. 306-307, 146–159.

Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., (2012). Experiments and geochemical modeling of CO2sequestration during hydrothermal basalt alteration. Chem. Geol. 306-307, 10–28.

Helgi A. Alfredsson, D. W. Boenisch and A. Stefánsson. (2011). CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks in Iceland: Development of a piston-type downhole sampler for CO2 rich fluids and tracers. Energy Procedia 4, 3510–3517.

Stockmann G.J., Liudmila S. Shirokova, Oleg S. Pokrovsky et al. (2012).  Does the presence of heterotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas reactants affect basaltic glass dissolution rates?  Chemical Geology 296-297, 1–18.


Aradóttir E.S.P., Sigurðardóttir, H. Sigfússon, B. and Gunnlaugsson, E. (2011). CarbFix: A CCS pilot project imitating and accelerating natural CO2 sequestration. Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. 1: 105-118. 

Stefánsson, A, Arnórsson, S, Gunnarsson, I. et al. (2011). The geochemistry and sequestration of H2S into the geothermal system at Hellisheidi, Iceland. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 202, 179-188.

Flaathen T. K., Oelkers E. H., Gislason S. R. and Aagaard P. (2011) The effect of dissolved sulphate on calcite precipitation kinetics and consequences for subsurface CO2 storage. Energy Procedia 4, 5037–5043.

Gysi, A.P., Stefansson, A., 2011. CO2–water–basalt interaction. Numerical simulation of low temperature CO2 sequestration into basalts. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 4728–4751.

Gudbrandsson S., Wolff-Boenisch D., Gislason S. R. and Oelkers E. H. (2011) An experimental study of crystalline basalt dissolution from 2 6 pH 6 11 and temperatures from 5 to 75°C. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 5496–5509.

Matter JM, Broecker, W., Gislason, S. R. et al. (2011). The CarbFix Pilot Project – Storing Carbon Dioxide in Basalt. Energy Procedia 4, 5579–5585.

Ragnheiðardóttir E, Sigurðardóttir H, Kristjánsdóttir H and Harvey W. (2011). Opportunities and challenges for CarbFix: An evaluation of capacities and costs for the pilot scale mineralization sequestration project at Hellisheidi, Iceland and beyond. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. 5: 1065–1072.

Stockmann G.J., D. Wolff-Boenisch, S.R. Gislason, E.H. Oelkers. (2011) Do carbonate precipitates affect dissolution kinetics? 1: Basaltic glass, Chemical Geology, 284 306-316.

Wolff-Boenisch, D., Wenau, S., Gislason, S, and Oelkers, E. H. (2011). Dissolution of basalts and peridotite in the presence of organic and inorganic ligands, in seawater and under pCO2 pressure at 25°C. Implications for mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 75, 5510-5525.

Wolff-Boenisch, D:. (2011). On the buffer capacity of CO2-charged seawater used for carbonation and subsequent mineral sequestration. Energy Procedia, 4, 3738–3745.


Gislason, S.R., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Stefansson, A. et al. (2010). Mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide in basalt: A pre-injection overview of the CarbFix project. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 4, 537-545.

Flaathen, T.K., Gislason, S.R., Oelkers, E.H., (2010). The effect of aqueous sulphate on basaltic glass dissolution rates. Chem. Geol. 277, 345–354.


Flaathen, T.K., Gislason, S.R. and Oelkers E.H. (2009). Chemical evolution of the Mt. Hekla, Iceland, groundwaters: A natural analogue for CO2 sequestration in basaltic rocks. Applied Geochemistry, 24, 463-474.

Matter, J.M., Broecker, W.S., Stute, M. et al. (2009). Permanent Carbon Dioxide Storage into Basalt: The CarbFix Pilot Project, Iceland. Energy Procedia, 1, 3641-3646.


Alfredsson, H.A., Hardarson, B.S., Franzson, H., Gislason, S.R. (2008). CO2 sequestration in basaltic rock at the Hellisheidi site in SW Iceland:Stratigraphy and chemical composition of the rocks at the injection site. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 1-5.

Flaathen, T.K., Oelkers, E.H. and Gislason, S.R. (2008).The effect of aqueous sulphate on basaltic glass dissolution rate. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 39-41. 

Gudbrandsson, S., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gíslason, S.R. and Oelkers, E.H.(2008). Dissolution rates of crystalline basalt at pH 4 and 10 and 25-75°C. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 155-158. 

Gysi, A.P. and Stefánsson, A. (2008). Numerical modelling of CO2-water-basalt interaction. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 55-59.

Oelkers E.H., S.R. Gislason, and J. Matter (2008). Mineral Carbonation of CO2, Elements, Vol. 4, 331-335.

Rezvani Khalilabad, M., Axelsson, G. and  Gislason, S.R. (2008). Aquifer characterization with tracer test technique; permanent CO2 sequestration into basalt, SW Iceland. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 121 125. 

Stockmann, G., Wolff-Boenisch, D., Gíslason, S.R. and Oelkers, E.H. (2008). Dissolution of diopside and basaltic glass: the effect of carbonate coating. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 135-139.

PhD Thesis

Clark, D. (2019). Mineral storage of carbon in basaltic rocks at elevated temperatures. A field and experimental study. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland. 

Snæbjörnsdóttir, S.Ó. (2017). Mineral storage of carbon in basaltic rocks. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Alfredsson, H.A. (2015). Water-rock interaction during mineral carbonation and volcanic ash weathering. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Galeczka I. (2013). Experimental and field studies of basalt-carbon dioxide interaction. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland. 

Gudbrandsson, S. (2013). Experimental weathering rates of alunimum-silicates. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Stockmann, G.J. (2012). Experimental study of Basalt carbonatization. Ph.D. thesis, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Aradottir, E.S.P. (2011). Reactive transport models of CO2-water-basalt interaction and applications to CO2 mineral sequestration. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Gysi, A.P. (2011). CO2-water-basalt Interaction: Reaction Path Experiments and Numerical Modeling. University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Flaathen, T.K. (2009). Water-rock interaction during CO2 sequestration in basalt. University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland. 


MSc Thesis

Aaberg, I. (2013) Characterization of olivine reacted with supercritical CO2 using surface sensitive techniques - Implications for mineral carbonation. University of Copenhagen. 75 p.

Rezvani Khalilabad, M. 2008. Characterization of the Hellisheidi-Threngsli CO2 sequestration Target Aquifier by Tracer Testing. Oddi, Reykjavik, Iceland, 2008. ISBN: 978-9979-68-252-3. ISSN: 1670-7427

Ragnheidardottir, E.V. 2010. Costs, Profitability and Potential Gains of the CarbFix Program. pp 107.


BSc Thesis

Madsen, E.K. (2014) Limestone interaction with supercritical CO2: Investigating the implications on limestone morphology and composition. University of Copenhagen. 35 p.

Petersen, M. L. (2014) Underground storage of carbon dioxide: Investigating the release of trace elements from limestone. University of Copenhagen. 42 p.

Kragsberger, R.T. (2014) Reactivity of calcite in contact with water and supercritical CO2. University of Copenhagen. 45 p.

Weihe, S.H.C. (2014) Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Investigating mineral dissolution and the release of trace elements from limestone upon interaction with scCO2. University of Copenhagen. 45 p.